Data Visualisation

Good article here.

a bit of a dirty little secret in data journalism: Visualizing data is as much an art as a science. And seemingly tiny design decisions — where to set a color threshold, how many thresholds to set, etc. — can radically alter how numbers are displayed and perceived by readers.

Floating Production Facts

Some facts here:

  • There are 261 oil & gas floating production units currently installed
    • 65% are FPSOs
    • 15% are production semis
    • 10% are TLPs
    • 8% are production Spars
    • 2% are production barges
    • In addition, there are 19 FSRUs and 92 FSOs in service
  • There are 25 oil and gas floating production units currently available for redeployment
    • 76% of which are FPSOs
    • 24% of which are production semis
  • There are 55 floating production units and 7 storage units on order
    • 53% are FPSOs
    • 13% are another type
    • 35% are FLNG or FSRU units
  • First FLNG is expected to start production this year
  • The last major FPSO contract was awarded in January 2015 for Ghana
  • Over the past ten years the average was for 12 FPSOs and 3 other floating production floater contracts to be signed per year.
  • An FSRU moored offshore can require $500+ million investment in infrastructure.  Unlike an FPSO, an FSRU feeds gas to a local off-taker so financing can be limited by the creditability of the off-taker and the willingness of the government to provide a guarantee.

How many miles of driving to demonstrate driverless car reliability?

Here is some interesting research by the RAND Corporation looking into whether ti is practical to demonstrate the safety and reliability of autonomous vehicles by test-driving them prior to releasing them for public use.

Key findings:

  • Driverless cars would need to be test-driven for an impractically large number of miles in order to demonstrate reliability
  • It could take tens and even hundreds of years to complete this testing and therefore test-driving is not practical for demonstrating autonomous vehicle safety
  • Developers of driverless car technology will need to develop other methods to demonstrate reliability and safety and even then uncertainty is likely to remain
  • Regulations for driverless cars should remain flexible in order to manage the risks and uncertainty around their reliability

How to apologise

  • Express regret
  • Explain what went wrong
  • Acknowledge responsibility
  • Declare repentance
  • Offer to repair
  • Request for forgiveness

Of these, acknowledging responsibility and offering to fix the problem are the most important elements.

Source: The 6 elements of an effective apology, according to science

The case for marine renewables for Indonesia

Ocean energy for Indonesian sustainable development.


  • At current production rates and reserves, Indonesian oil reserves will be depleted in 10 years, gas reserves depleted in 25 years and coal reserves depleted in 50 years
  • Indonesia has more than 17,000 islands and three quarters of it’s total area is covered by seas and oceans. The total potential of Indonesia’s ocean energy is estimated at 100 GW.
  • Tidal energy is ready to be commercialized with an estimated potential of at least 10GW. There are at least 11 areas around the Indonesian archipelago with suitable current velocities for tidal energy from either conventional tides or from a constant high-flow current known as the ‘Indonesia throughflow’ which brings water from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean.
  • The first commercial scale tidal turbine was the MCT twin-turbine device at Strangford Lough which has produced electricity since 2008.
  • The first tidal array in Indonesia will have a capacity of 150MW and a privately funded budget of USD$750M with a schedule of 36 months.
  • In the absence of Indonesian Government development grants for commercial-scale ocean energy projects, the Government’s Feed-in Tariff has been incentivised to allow ocean energy IPPs to deliver bankable projects with a fair return on investment for investors and shareholders. To raise investor confidence in the sector, the Indonesian Government also offers positive fiscal and policy incentives for commercial-scale, tidal-stream developments.

Are the costs of maintaining control of the seas worth it?

Interesting analysis on the cost-benefit analysis of keeping sea lanes open using military power. The result is surprisingly low benefit which does not seem to justify the large naval expense. However, I am sure one could argue for additional benefits (geopolitical/security) other than just impact on trade.